20th Anniversary of Sonic the Hedgehog

Sonic has now celebrated his 20th anniversary!

Here is a photo made by a Japanese Sonic fan:

Beautiful! It has almost every Sonic character on it, such Dr. Eggman, Sonic, Fang, Bean, Jet, Mighty, Tails, Knuckles, Shadow, etc.

Now we will be showing you the History about Sonic and other Sonic stuff!


In April 1990 SEGA wanted to introduce a better mascot (better than it's Alex Kidd mascot which began in 1985) that would be:

  • Official
  • Bring luck to the company
  • Rival with Nintendo's mascot Mario (created in 1981)
  • Better design (with a better character designer)
  • To be famous mascot (videogame character) like Mario
  • To be same colour as SEGA's logo
  • To sell more than 1 million copies than the previous mascot

So SEGA asked SEGA-AM8 (Yuji Naka and Naoto Oshima) (developer of the Phantasy Star series (1987/88- )) to create a new mascot that would be better than the predessor itself. It was planned to be animal character and not a human character. They've planned that it could either be a:

  • Hedgehog (chosen probably by Yuji Naka)
  • Echidna (later became Knuckles)
  • Armadillo (later became Chaotix character Mighty)
  • Bulldog with American behaviour (White (like Churchill's advertising nodding dog of 1996) but without the orange)
  • Rabbit
  • Wolf (with American behaviour)

So they all chosed a hedgehog as a mascot.

Concept Hedgehog (who became Sonic) design drawn by Naoto Oshima


According Naoto's concept drawing of 1990, the character was going to be faster than the speed of sound where planned that character would be called “Mr. Needelmouse” (to refer direct translation of the Japanese word for hedgehog, hanezuni) and later Sonic  (ソニック; Romaji: Sonikku). His shoes was inspired from Michael Jackson's dancing shoes used in the album “Bad”, while the colour scheme for his famous shoes came from Santa Claus. Sonic's personality, on the other hand, was directly inspired by future-President Bill Clinton, who Ohshima felt embodied a modern sensibility of wanting to get things done right away, righting wrongs as they presented themselves instead of letting them linger.

Sonic in the same year made his unofficial appearance in Rad Mobile, an arcade racing game and then in 1991, a group of 15 people made the first Sonic game and was released on the 23rd June 1991 in North America, then in Europe (around the same month), Japan (26th July) and Central and South America in October 1991.

According to SEGA of Japan, Sonic was going to be born on an island called Christmas Island (an island in the Indian Ocean near Indonesia adminstered by Australia since 1958, that was once under Japanese Occupation from 1942-45). They also said that Sonic has been in lots of places in the world (Earth) and went to an island in New Zealand called South Island.

According to Sonic's technical documents, Sonic was a novel published by American writer Mary Garnet during the Second World War.

Here is an STI (Sega Technical Institute [part of SEGA of America Inc.]) translation of the technical document:

SONIC THE HEDGEHOG – Original Story and Character Profiles

Character Outline: Sonic the Hedgehog

  • Approximate age: 18 (but it's kind of hard to tell).
  • Legendary blue hedgehog with an attitude.
  • Is the _fastest_ in the land.
  • Strong sense of justice but irreverent to authority.
  • Impatient (does not like to stand around).
  • Not detail-oriented (short attention span).
  • Likes anything fast.
  • Loyal to his friends but enjoys his independence.
  • Street smart, but warm at heart.
  • Loves beauty, nature, cool music and adventure!
  • Not a hero, but has lots of self confidence and courage.
  • But, above all else, he is FAST!

The Background Story: Sonic's Origin

Mary Garnet was a popular writer of children's books in the U.S. during the 1940's. Her Husband was a test pilot for the U.S. Air Force. His secret project was code named “Blue Gale” who's goal was to produce the first plane that would break the sound barrier. Mary affectionately nick-named her husband “Hedgehog” because of the way his hair always struck straight up when he took off his flight helmet. The nickname stuck and it inspired Mary to decorate his leather flight jacket with a blue cartoon mascot. Since her husband was so busy flying for the Air Force, Mary had to fill in for him raising their only daughter Sherry. Mary would spend the afternoons making up stories to tell Sherry and her friends. Oddly enough, it would always seem that a hedgehog would be the hero of the story. “Sonic” the hedgehog had many fantastic adventures usually protecting innocent people and little animals from evil men.

Sherry used to love hearing these stories and Mary used to love telling them to lots of children for many years (these stories and their characters were used as the basis for the Sonic video games from Sega. SEE: The Game Story).

In 1947, Chuck Yeager (also a test pilot for the U.S. Air Force) became the first man to break the sound barrier to become the “fastest man alive”.

But a little known incident took place earlier on the same day that has been lost in the record books, eclipsed by the historic event. Another pilot called Hedeghog had set out to break the same record but with tragically different results. His ill-fated jet plane was rocketing towards the speed record when it suddenly started to vibrate violently and then exploded in a tremendous fireball! Nobody seems to remember the real name of the brave pilot, but old-timers around the airport still remember the emblem of Sonic the blue hedgehog……

About forty years later, a freelance camera woman named Meg came to town on an assignment to cover an upcoming Air Show. As she stopped for lunch, she decided to browse through an interesting looking Antique shop near the airport.

Inside she discovered a very dusty old leather flight jacket with the emblem of a strange character and the letters S-O-N-I-C on the back. She tried to decide if this character was a lion, a cat, or some other strange animal.

But something drew her to it and she instantly liked it a lot. She tried it on and the shopkeeper couldn't help but notice:

“Say Lady….. looks like that Jacket is just your size! Do you like it?”

“Why yes! It's great! It's a little dirty but…….do you know what this word SONIC means? It sounds strangely familiar. Like I've heard it before…..”

“Well, I guess it's probably the name of that funny-lookin critter on the back.”

“Sonic.. yes Sonic!… Oh I remember, he is SONIC THE HEDGEHOG! I used to hear the stories from an old neighbor lady when I was a little girl. He's a little hedgehog that can run faster than sound!”

Meg laughed out loud as the rush of childhood memories poured back to her. She dusted off the old jacket, eagerly paid for it, and she giggled to herself as she wore it out of the store. This immediately became a favorite possession and she wore it everywhere. She could not explain the strange sensation she felt when she w as wearing this jacket, but something made her feel quite comfortable and safe with it on.

Upon arriving at the Air Show, Meg started taking pictures of all the vintage aircraft. At one point during the show, a group of old WW2 planes were doing a low-level formation fly-by when suddenly one of the planes veered off and fell to the ground! In the panic of the following explosion, Meg found herself surrounded by fire. She tried to escape but became disoriented as all she could see was a wall of flame. Suddenly a hand reached out and grabbed her just as she was passing out from the intense heat. As she slipped into unconsciousness, all she could see was a strange blue form and she felt the sensation of tremendous acceleration.

Meg woke up staring at the ceiling of a hospital room. She was a little singed and badly shaken, but not really hurt. “Have I been dreaming?” she asked herself. Her nurse told her that she had been found unconscious lying on a grassy hill miles from the airport. No one could explain how she got there, but her jacket had been burned and Meg noticed that the emblem had disappeared!

Could it be? She had this strange idea that somehow Sonic must have saved her, but she stopped short of saying anything because she didn't want to sound crazy. Even though it seemed impossible, all she could say was “I don't know…..”.

Later, as she developed the pictures in the camera of the last moments of the Air Show, Meg's heart stopped as the last exposure came into view. It showed the blurred image of a large pair of red shoes with a white stripe…..


Was it really him? What other explanation? She was confused….but it seemed so real! A moment later, she gasped with excitement at the thought of seeing him again.

The Game Story: (adapted from the Sonic Stories of Mary Garnet)

Sonic was born on a small island called Christmas Island. But his love for adventure called him away and he has visited so many different places on Earth that he doesn't really have a place he considers to be home. The Sonic stories center around his favorite group of islands including South Island (Sonic 1), Westside Island (Sonic 2), and Angel Island (Sonic 3). The first Sonic Story is located on South Island which is quite beautiful. This island is known for the curious fact that it floats around in the ocean. That is why it can not be found on any map. Sonic is fond of sitting on its beach in his beach chair, wearing sunglasses, and listening to cool rock music. Sonic loves to sing in his own rock band, and enjoys being with his friends, but he is just as happy to be alone.

Sonic would be very happy enjoying his own pastimes were it not for the constant intrusions of his arch rival Dr. Robotnik (also sometimes known as Eggman because of his round shape). The evil doctor seems to have an endless supply of fiendish plots to take over the world, but Sonic seems to always find a way to frustrate his plans and keep him at bay. This has given Sonic somewhat of a celebrity status with the local inhabitants and he is loved by all as much as Robotnik is hated by all.

Westside Island is a very ancient island with plenty of treasures and ancient ruins. It is also said to contain a small supply of a very powerful natural crystals called “Chaos Emeralds“. These multi-colored emeralds have tremendous energy and could be used to create the most powerful nuclear bombs and laser weapons if they fell into the wrong hands. Legend says that they exist here, but nobody can remember actually seeing them. The reason for this is that the Chaos Emeralds exist in a _different dimension_ and no one has yet been able to find a way to actually possess them.

One day, Dr. Robotnik heard the stories of the Chaos Emeralds and he vowed to do whatever it took to acquire them for his own evil purposes. He, and his henchmen, built a huge fortress where he made robots of many types and sent them off to find the Chaos Emeralds. Sonic stood up in defiance of Robotnik's troops and kicked them all back into the fortress telling them never to come out again. But the evil doctor had other plans. as he sulked away, he vowed that he would find the Chaos Emeralds, and he would get his revenge on Sonic the Hedgehog.

A short time later, Sonic made an amazing discovery. His friends had all disappeared! Robotnik had been capturing all of the defenseless animals in the countryside and had changed them into robots! Dr. Robotnik was converting Sonic's friends into slaves and now only Sonic to save them! Can Sonic do it?

Will Robotnik succeed in his quest for the emeralds while exacting his revenge on Sonic? Can Sonic subdue the hoards of robot animals without hurting his friends inside? Will Robotnik take over the _whole world_?

So begins the video game saga of Sonic the Hedgehog……

Primary cast of Game Characters


Sonic is the star. He is a cool blue dude with an attitude. he is _not_ a “do-gooding” hero. He is loyal to his friends and has a good sense of right and wrong, but he is a very independent guy who is mostly interested in doing his own thing. He is not book smart, but he is very street smart. He loves beauty, nature, and adventure, but his primary passion is for speed and indeed he can run faster than anyone on the planet. Two things he does _not_ do are; swim (he sinks like a stone), or ride around in cars, motorcycles, etc. (why _should_ he when he can run faster than them all!). He fancies himself as a bit of a ladies man, but he does not like to be chased by girls. He is generally impatient and likes to get things done quickly. Sometimes this can work against him because he is not very detail oriented. But for the most part, Sonic is as quick witted as he is fast footed and this gives him an extraordinary combination of talents that keep him the idol of kids around the globe.

Miles (Tails) Prower

Miles Prower (from Miles-per-hour), nicknamed “Tails” is a two-tailed flying fox with the amazing ability to use his twin tails like the blades of a helicopter allowing him to fly (and mostly keep up with Sonic). He made his first appearance in Sonic 2, and he is truly the little brother that Sonic never had. Miles worships Sonic and wants to be just as fast and cool as his hero. He is about 10 years old, weighs 15 pounds, and is about 2.9 feet tall.

Miles is a very smart little fox and is also very good with mechanics. He has been known to help Sonic by giving him a helicopter lift when needed. His inquisitive nature and tag-along style get him into trouble occasionally, but Sonic always seems to be able to help out his little buddy when the chips are down.

Dr. Robotnik

The evil doctor (also known as Eggman) has been a bad egg from the very beginning. Nobody knows quite where he came from, but he is definitely behind any problem that comes up. Dr. Robotnik _loves_ machines. He loves them so much that his idea of a perfect world would be to have it full of _nothing_ but machines. He thinks they are beautiful and he likes that he can control them. A genuine genius megalomaniac, he spends all of his time trying to replace the natural world with his beautiful machines He is not very concerned about saving the planet (being a notorious polluter), and he particularly likes the idea of exploiting the oceans for their riches (This really gets to Sonic, because Sonic loves the oceans and can't stand the idea of Robotnik messing with them). In order to have ultimate control in his quest, Robotnik must find and control all of the Chaos Emeralds, and most importantly…..Sonic.

Fortunately for everyone, Sonic is an incredibly fast moving target and is usually one step ahead of him.


Long ago, an ancient civilization called the Echidnas lived on Angel Island and had mastered the secrets of the Chaos Emeralds. so powerful were these emeralds that the entire island floats high in the sky. The island's existence has long been a secret because not many people have ever seen it as it is always obscured by clouds. But the Echidna Tribe mysteriously disappeared leaving Knuckles as their lone descendant and guardian of these secrets.

Knuckles is about 15 years old, wears his hair in “dreadlocks” and has a generally cool aura about him. He is quite athletic and can run almost as fast as Sonic, climb vertical rock walls, and float down (like flying) from high places. He can also use the spikes on his knuckles to help him dig which is one of his favorite activities. Knuckles has a strong sense of honor and has a good heart (he is the equivalent to Doronpa in the Oba-Q story). He is very clever and smart, but had lived his life in solitude and was not accustomed to dealing with characters from the outer world, much less such a cunning one as Dr. Robotnik. This is why he was easily deceived by Robotnik into thinking that Sonic was a bad guy trying to steal the Chaos Emeralds. This deception allowed Robotnik to pit Knuckles against Sonic as a powerful adversary.

Knuckles snatched up the Chaos Emeralds from Sonic and then used his vast knowledge of the Island and his ability to dig to expertly escape from Sonic and Tails and to set up hidden traps and obstacles to slow their pursuit.

Fortunately, this deception could not last because both Sonic and Knuckles ultimately discovered they were fighting on the same side of the same cause.

They finally vowed to work together to protect Angel Island and ultimately defeat Robotnik.


[Source: Sonic Retro]

While Sonic visits South Island, he meets a man (islander) called Dr. Eggman, who became his arch-nemesis.

Sadly, when Sonic recgonized by SEGA's international divisions (SEGA of America, Inc. and SEGA Europe Ltd.), they didn't prefer Japanese origins, which came from Mary Garnet's Sonic stories. SEGA of America, Inc. wanted to make it's own versions of Sonic.

In the American origins (which spread to Europe and probably South Korea and Australia), Sonic lives on a planet called Mobius (which SEGA of America regarded it as a future of Earth, however other companies like DiC [who made the cartoons], Archie [who made the comics] and Fleetway [who made Sonic the Comic] regarded it as a seperate planet) and the enemy is Dr. Robotnik (Western version of Dr. Eggman until 1999, when the Dr. Eggman name appeared in the West). This was originated in it's own American comic book created by Francis Mao. Francis Mao also made the first North-American Sonic character designs that were used on North-American box arts of Sonic games up to late 1994, when Naoto's drawing were used. However, the Europeans didn't use Francis Mao's designs, instead they used a modified version of Naoto Oshima designs of Sonic.

The promotional comic was to help spread the Sonic brand in North America

Japanese box art of the first Sonic game. It was released over there on the 26th July 1991

Soon, Sonic success has saw other companies to make characters/mascots to rival him, such characters included Crash Bandicoot (Sierra), Sly Cooper, Spyro (Sierra), Sparkster, Blinx, Supersonix (mobile phone game character), Bubsy and Grefónic (who is a character from a sticker published by the Spanish crisp Gresosa S.A.) .

In 1992 Sonic Team (formerly SEGA-AM8, founded in 1988) wanted to make SEGA's mascot to have various sequels and to perhaps still make Sonic Games by the year 2000 and future years. This led a second Sonic game Sonic the Hedgehog 2, but sadly Sonic Team had problems at their Japanese studio (because Yuji and Naoto didn't like the SEGA of Japan's laws very much) so they decided to make Sonic games in the USA at the SEGA Technical Institute (part of SEGA of America, Inc.) in Hayward, California, USA (later in Redwood City and now in San Francisco [since 1999]) which continued to develop Sonic games overthere until 1995, however some Sonic games (notably with American influence in them) continued in the USA with the new Sonic Team USA in 1998 (later SEGA Studio USA) until 2008, however SEGA later began to have a studio in the People's Republic of China, recently. 1992 also saw the year of the first Sonic manga (Japanese comic).

In 1993, this saw Sonic rapid character recognition in the USA (which became part of America's videogame interests). This led to the Americans making their own Sonic games (that were not official) such Dr. Robotnik's Mean Bean Machhine and Sonic Spinball. This also led to the new comic book in the UK (Sonic the Comic) and USA (Sonic the Hedgehog) and the new Animated shows starting with the Adventures of Sonic the Hedgehog (1993/1993-1995) introduced by DiC in the United States.

First Sonic TV show 1993

1994 led to lots of Sonic games, such as Sonic and Tails 2 (Sonic the Hedgehog Triple Trouble in Western markets), Sonic Drift, the Game Gear version of Sonic Spinball, Sonic the Hedgehog 3, Sonic Chaos, Sonic and Knuckles and the cancelled Sonic Stadium game.

By 1995 SEGA had released 5 Sonic games; Sonic Drift 2, Sonic Labyrinth, Tails Adventure, Tails Skypatrol and Knuckles' Chaotix. That year led to Sonic Character games.

In 1996 Sonic's gameplay began to change, changing from a 2D side-scrolling Mario style into a 3-D gameplay, which started with Sonic 3-D Blast (SEGA Saturn) and Sonic 3-D Flickies Island (Mega Drive/Genesis). Then, SEGA wanted the new Sonic for that year to have 3-D graphics which started with the Sonic the Fighters (Sonic Championship in Western markets) arcade game which featured new characters such as Bean and Bark, which were later droped since 1997 and also that was the last year of Fang's (originally as Nack in the West) appearance.

In 1997 SEGA released 2 games, Sonic R and Sonic Jam, both for SEGA Saturn, which Sonic R made Sonic to appear in 32-bit appearances, along with the cancelled Sonic X-Treme. That year, Yuji Uekawa replaced Naoto Oshima as Sonic's character designer starting with Sonic R.

Yuji Uekawa is Sonic's current character designer who redesigned him in 1998 with Sonic Adventure

In early 1998 the Sonic Classic Era was beginning to end along with PC version of Sonic R, Game.com version of Sonic Jam (only released in the USA) and the North-American released Sonic and Garfield Super Pack for PC.

1998 and 1999 saw the release of Sonic Adventure. Those year saw various changes for the Western market, by changing the name Dr. Robotnik to Dr. Eggman (as in Japan) and using Sonic's World as the name of Sonic's planet (replacing Mobius in Western sources and Earth in Japanese sources). 1999 also saw the year of the U.S. market Sonic Pocket Adventure for Neo Pocket Color and when Naoto Oshima left SEGA to start his own company “Artoon”. Also, those years made Yuji Uekawa redesign Sonic in his present form.

Yuji Uekawa completely redesigned him making a bit larger and having green-coloured irises

2000 saw the year of only 1 Sonic game released, Sonic Shuffle, a party game.

To Commemorate Sonic's 10 Anniversary in 2001 SEGA launched Sonic Adventure 2 for Dreamcast, just before it ended production. It also released Sonic Adventure 2: Battle for Nintendo Gamecube and Sonic Advance for Game Boy Advance. That year saw the début of Shadow and Rouge, which Shadow became one of the most loved Sonic characters of all time.

Shadow the Hedgehog as seen on a Japanese Sonic X hi-spech Volume 10 DVD

In 2002 SEGA released Sonic Battle and Sonic Advance 2 for Game Boy Advance as well as Sonic Mega Collection for Gamecube.

In 2003 SEGA, TMS Entertainment and Sonic Team launched a new Sonic TV series called Sonic X, which became the most succesful Sonic series ever. Also in late December 2003 SEGA released Sonic Heroes in Japan, along with export markets in early 2004.

Sonic X became the most succesful Sonic TV Show

2004 also saw the year of the end of Sonic X in Japan, Sonic Advance 3, PC version of Sonic Heroes (November) and SEGA Superstars (not to confuse with SEGA Superstars Tennis) an Eye-Toy game featuring various SEGA games and Sonic Mega Collection Plus.

2005 saw the release of Sonic Gems Collection and Shadow the Hedgehog, and probably  the Japanese release of Sonic Riders, as well as Sonic Rush for Nintendo DS.

2006 saw the export release of Sonic Riders, the U.S. release of Sonic Rivals and Japanese release of Sonic the Hedgehog. This year was when Yuji Naka left Sonic Team to start his own SEGA studio Prope and Sonic's 15th Anniversary.

In 2007 SEGA released the export release of Sonic the Hedgehog, Sonic and the Secret Rings (Wii), Sonic Rush Adventure (DS), export release Sonic Rivals, Wii version of Mario and Sonic at the Olympic Games and Sonic Rivals 2.

2008 saw the end of Sonic game production in the USA at SEGA Studio USA, when a person at Sonic Team said “No more Sonic Team USA”, as well as the DS version of Mario and Sonic at the Olympic Games, Sonic Riders: Zero Gravity, SEGA Superstars Tennis, Sonic Unleashed, SEGA Genesis Collection and Sonic Chronicles: The Dark Brotherhood.

2009 saw the release of Sonic's Ultimate Genesis Collection, Japanese releases of Sonic Chronicles: The Dark Brotherhood and  Sonic Unleashed (as Sonic World Adventure), Sonic and the Black Knight and Mario and Sonic at the Olympic Winter Games.

2010 saw the release of Sonic and SEGA All-Stars Racing, Sonic Classics Collection, Sonic the Hedgehog 4: Episode 1, Sonic Colours (known in USA and Japan as Sonic Colors) and Sonic Free Riders.

For 2011 SEGA will be releasing Sonic Generations, Sonic the Hedgehog 4: Episode 2 and Mario and Sonic at the London 2012 Olympic Games.

In Novmeber 2010, SEGA announced that it addmitted to “Too Much Sonic” and it might plan to end the Sonic brand in 2012 and would promise 3 more games for 2011 (we do not know if it will happen or not).

Sonic Video Games:

Sega consoles

Console Game Year Covers Manuals Hardware

Mega Drive
Sonic the Hedgehog 1991 US EU JP
Sonic the Hedgehog 2 1992 US EU JP
Sonic Spinball 1993 US EU JP
Dr. Robotnik's Mean Bean Machine 1993 na US EU na na
Sonic the Hedgehog 3 1994 US EU JP
Sonic & Knuckles 1994 US EU JP
Sonic Classics 1995 na US EU na na
Sonic 3D: Flickies' Island 1996 na US EU* na na

Mega CD
Sonic the Hedgehog CD 1993 US EU JP

Sega 32X
Knuckles' Chaotix 1995 US EU JP

Master System
Sonic the Hedgehog 1991 na US EU na na
Sonic the Hedgehog 2 1992 na na na EU na na na
Sonic Chaos 1993 na na na EU na na na
Sonic Spinball 1994 na na na EU na na na
Dr. Robotnik's Mean Bean Machine 1994 na na na EU na na na
Sonic Blast 1997 BR

Game Gear
Sonic the Hedgehog 1991 US EU JP
Sonic the Hedgehog 2 1992 US EU JP*
Sonic Chaos 1993 US EU JP
Sonic Spinball 1994 na US EU na na
Dr. Robotnik's Mean Bean Machine 1994 na US EU na na
Sonic Drift 1994 na na na na JP na na
Sonic Triple Trouble 1994 US EU JP
Sonic Drift 2 1995 US* EU JP
Tails Adventures 1995 US* EU JP
Tails' Skypatrol 1995 na na na na JP na na
Sonic 2 in 1 1995 na na na EU na na na
Sonic Labyrinth 1995 US EU JP
Sonic Blast 1996 US EU JP

Sega Pico
Sonic the Hedgehog's Gameworld 1994 US EU JP
Tails and the Music Maker 1994 US EU JP

Sega Game Toshokan
Sonic Eraser 1991 na na na na na na na na na

Sonic 3D: Flickies' Island 1996 US EU JP
Sonic Jam 1997 US EU JP
Sonic R 1997 US EU JP

Sonic Adventure 1998 US EU JP
Sonic Adventure International 1999 na na na na JP na na
Sonic Shuffle 2000 US EU JP
Sonic Adventure 2 2001 US EU JP

Nintendo consoles

Console Game Year Covers Manuals Hardware

Game Boy
Sonic Advance 2001 US EU JP* US cart
Sonic Advance 2 2002 US EU JP
Sonic Pinball Party 2003 US EU JP
Sonic Battle 2003 US EU JP
Sonic X: A Super Sonic Hero 2004 na na US na na na na
Sonic Advance 3 2004 US EU JP
Sonic the Hedgehog Genesis 2006 na na US na na na na

Sonic Adventure 2: Battle 2001 US EU JP
Sonic Mega Collection 2002 US EU JP
Sonic Adventure DX: Director's Cut 2003 US EU JP
Sonic Heroes 2003 US EU JP
Sonic Gems Collection 2005 US EU JP
Shadow the Hedgehog 2005 US EU JP
Sonic Riders 2006 US EU JP

Sonic Rush 2005 US EU JP
Sonic Rush Adventure 2007 US EU JP
Mario & Sonic at the Olympic Games 2008 US EU JP
Sonic Chronicles: The Dark Brotherhood 2008 US EU JP
Mario & Sonic at the Olympic Winter Games 2009 US EU JP
Sonic & Sega All-Stars Racing 2010 US EU JP
Sonic Classic Collection 2010 US EU JP
Sonic Colors 2010

Sonic and the Secret Rings 2007 US EU JP
Mario & Sonic at the Olympic Games 2007 US EU JP
Sonic Riders: Zero Gravity 2008 US EU JP
Sonic Unleashed 2008 US EU JP
Sonic and the Black Knight 2009 US EU JP
Mario & Sonic at the Olympic Winter Games 2009 US EU JP
Sonic & Sega All-Stars Racing 2010 US EU JP
Sonic Colors 2010

Sony consoles

Console Game Year Covers Manuals Hardware

PlayStation 2
Sonic Heroes 2003 US EU JP
Sonic Mega Collection Plus 2004 US EU JP
Sonic Gems Collection 2005 na na EU JP na
Shadow the Hedgehog 2005 US EU JP
Sonic Riders 2006 US EU JP
Sonic Riders: Zero Gravity 2008 na US EU na na
Sonic Unleashed 2008 na US EU JP na

Sonic Rivals 2006 na US EU na na
Sonic Rivals 2 2007 na US EU na na

PlayStation 3
Sonic the Hedgehog 2006 US EU JP
Sonic Unleashed 2008 US EU JP
Sonic & Sega All-Stars Racing 2010 US EU JP

Microsoft consoles

Console Game Year Covers Manuals Hardware

Sonic Heroes 2003 US EU JP
Sonic Mega Collection Plus 2004 US EU JP
Shadow the Hedgehog 2005 US EU JP
Sonic Riders 2006 US EU JP

Xbox 360
Sonic the Hedgehog 2006 US EU JP
Sonic Unleashed 2008 US EU JP
Sonic & Sega All-Stars Racing 2010 US EU JP

Home Computers

Console Game Year Covers Manuals Hardware

Sonic the Hedgehog CD 1996 US EU JP
Sonic's Schoolhouse 1996 na na US na na na na
Sonic 3D: Flickies' Island 1997 US EU JP
Sonic & Knuckles Collection 1997 US EU JP
Sonic the Screen Saver 1997 na na na na JP na na
Sonic R 1998 US EU JP
Sonic Adventure DX: Director's Cut 2003 US EU JP
Sonic Heroes 2004 US EU JP
Sonic Mega Collection Plus 2006 na US EU na na
Sonic Riders 2006 na US EU na
Sonic & Sega All-Stars Racing 2010 US EU JP


Console Game Year Covers Manuals Hardware

Sonic Jam 1998 na na US na na

Neo Geo
Pocket Color
Sonic the Hedgehog Pocket Adventure 1999 US EU JP

SonicN 2003 na US EU na

Sonic X 2007 na US EU na na

Sonic the Hedgehog 2008 na na US na na


Console Game Year Manuals Hardware

Waku Waku Sonic Patrol Car 1991 na na JP
SegaSonic Cosmo Fighter Galaxy Patrol 1991 na na JP
Sonic the Hedgehog 1993
Sonic the Hedgehog 2 1993
SegaSonic the Hedgehog 1993 US EU JP
Sonic the Fighters 1996 US EU JP

UFO SegaSonic 1992 na na JP
Sonic the Hedgehog 1993 US
SegaSonic Popcorn Shop 1993 na na JP
Sonic's Space Tours 1994 na na JP
Sonic the Hedgehog 1997 na EU na
Sonic & Tails Spinner 2002 US na na
CR Sonic 2003 na na JP
Sonic Spinner 2007 US na na
Sonic Live! 2008

Sonic TV Shows, Videos, Film etc.

The Adventures of Sonic the Hedgehog (USA, Japan and France) (September 6th-December 3rd 1993)

Sonic the Hedgehog (SatAM) (September 18th 1993-December 3rd 1994) (USA)

Sonic Anime OVA (Japan, 1996) (2 OVAs)

Sonic Christmas Blast (USA, 1996) (Special edition of AOSTH)

Sonic Underground (August 30, 1999-May 4, 2000) (USA, France)

Sonic the Movie (September 1999, U.S. version of the Sonic Anime OVA) (USA, Japan)

“Sonic” 4 minute pilot (Japan, 2001) (Later unveiled as Sonic X in 2003)

Sonic X (Japan,  2003-2004 (Japan); 2003-2006 (rest of the world))

Sonic: Night of the Werehog (Japan, 2008) (11 min 20 sec. 3-D computer animated short film to promote Sonic Unleashed)

Return to Little Planet (USA (?))

Return to the Little Planet 2 (USA (?), January 2011)

Sonic Shorts YouTube videos (USA (?))

Awesome Chatoix YouTube videos (2011)

Sonic Animated Fan Film by Robert Kuta (USA, in production 2011)

Sonic Fan Film by Eddie Lebron (in production, 2011)

Comic Books

  • Sonic the Hedgehog Story Comic (Softbank Publishing, Japan)
  • Sonic the Hedgehog (Shogakukan, Japan)
  • Sonic the Hedgehog (Archie Comics, US)
  • Sonic the Comic (Fleetway, UK)
  • Sonic Adventures (La Sirène Sources, France)
  • Sonic X (Archie Comics, US)
  • Dash & Spin (Shogakukan, Japan)

Sonic fan-made dōjinshi have also been released in Japan.

[Source: Sonic Retro (comics)]



U.K. Novels

The first novel published in the U.K. was a standalone tale adapting the western-developed Kintobor origin. It was published by Penguin Group under their “Fantail” imprint, which is itself part of their “Puffin” imprint.

  • Stay Sonic: The Official Sega Handbook by Mike Pattenden.

James Wallis, Marc Gascoigne and Carl Sargent (under the pseudonym of Martin Adams) wrote four Sonic the Hedgehog novels based on the origin established in Stay Sonic. They were published by Virgin Publishing.

  • Sonic the Hedgehog in Robotnik's Laboratory
  • Sonic the Hedgehog in the Fourth Dimension
  • Sonic the Hedgehog and the Silicon Warriors
  • Sonic the Hedgehog in Castle Robotnik

U.S. Novels

Troll Associates hired Michael Teitelbaum to write a series of Sonic the Hedgehog novels for the American market, based on early concepts of the Saturday morning series and the Archie comic book.

  • Sonic the Hedgehog
  • Sonic the Hedgehog: Robotnik's Revenge
  • Sonic the Hedgehog: Fortress of Fear
  • Sonic the Hedgehog: Friend or Foe?
  • Sonic & Knuckles
  • Sonic X-Treme

Michael Teitelbaum also worked on the following related books under Troll Associates.

  • Sonic the Hedgehog Activity Book
  • How to Draw Sonic the Hedgehog & the Gang

The first of Teitelbaum's novels was also adapted into a picture book, published by Watermill Press. It was adapted by Judy Nayer and illustrated by Ron Zalme.

  • Sonic the Hedgehog

Picture Books


In the U.K., Ladybird published a series of Sonic-related picture books in 1994. For whatever reason, both the author and the artists of these books were uncredited.

  • Sonic the Hedgehog: The Invisible Robotnik
  • Sonic the Hedgehog: Robotnik's Oil
  • Sonic the Story – Another retelling of the Kintobor origin, narrated by Tails.

Golden Books Entertainment

A series of 3 books written by John Michlig and illustrated by Art Mawhinney were published by Golden Books Entertainment under their “Look Look Books” banner. Originally available through Scholastic book clubs, these books have sold a combined total of over half a million copies worldwide. While the two who worked on the books never met, Michlig later praised the way Mawhinney drew out his scripts. [1]

  • Sonic the Hedgehog: Sonic's Shoes Blues
  • Sonic the Hedgehog 2: The Secret Admirer
  • Sonic the Hedgehog 3: Up Against the Wall

A fourth book was published under their “Big Golden Book” banner, written by Parker Smith and illustrated by Penry Creative.

  • Sonic the Hedgehog: Double Trouble


A number of gamebooks were published in the mid-90's for the U.K. market featuring Sonic the Hedgehog.


Ladybird published a series of four “adventure gamebooks”, which are dissimilar to the typical format in that they're largely pictorial and involve instructions such as “Count up the flying badniks – the total is the number of the next page.”

  • Sonic the Hedgehog Adventure Gamebook 1
  • Sonic the Hedgehog Adventure Gamebook 2
  • Sonic the Hedgehog Adventure Gamebook 3
  • Sonic the Hedgehog Adventure Gamebook 4

Penguin Group

Once again under their “Puffin” imprint, Penguin published a series of six Sonic Adventures gamebooks (unrelated to the similarly-titled game) in the traditional format.

  • Book 1 – Metal City Mayhem by James Wallis
  • Book 2 – Zone Rangers by James Wallis
  • Book 3 – Sonic v Zonic by Nigel Gross and Jon Sutherland
  • Book 4 – The Zone Zapper by Nigel Gross and Jon Sutherland
  • Book 5 – Theme Park Panic by Marc Gascoigne and Jonathan Green
  • Book 6 – Stormin' Sonic by Marc Gascoigne and Jonathan Green

Puzzle Books


Once again, Ladybird used the Sonic the Hedgehog license to release a series of “Puzzle Books,” which were a series of activities and riddles.

  • Sonic the Hedgehog Puzzle Book 1
  • Sonic the Hedgehog Puzzle Book 2

Ladybird also published a series of “find the hidden items” books in the style of the Where's Wally?/Where's Waldo? franchise

  • Where's Sonic?
  • Where's Sonic Now?


Publications International also released their own version of a “Where's Waldo” book featuring Sonic the Hedgehog, also using the Freedom Fighters from Sonic the Hedgehog.

  • Sonic the Hedgehog (Look and Find)

Sonic X Books

A series of books based on the Sonic X animated series were also produced, published by Grosset & Dunlap.

  • Meteor Shower Messenger by Paul Ruditis
  • Spaceship Blue Typhoon by Diana Gallagher
  • Aqua Planet by Charlotte Fullerton
  • Dr. Eggman Goes to War by Charlotte Fullerton
  • Battle at Ice Pallace by Charlotte Fullerton
  • Desperately Seeking Sonic by Charlotte Fullerton


This is a list of other assorted Sonic the Hedgehog books that don't fit into the above categories.

  • Sonic the Hedgehog Paint 'n' Marker, published by Golden Books Entertainment
  • Sonic the Hedgehog Book, published in Japan
  • Sega Pro-Master Volume 1 by Jason Orbaum.
  • The Official Sonic the Hedgehog Yearbook 1991, published by Grandreams
  • The Official Sonic the Hedgehog Yearbook 1992, published by Grandreams
  • Pense Bem: Uma Aventura Científica com Sonic the Hedgehog by Regina Gomes de Sousa, Art by MW Ilustrações Ltda.
  • Pense Bem: Sonic the Hedgehog e Tails em Alta Velocidade, published by Nova Cultural Ltda.
  • Sonic the Hedgehog (Play-A-Sound) by Raymond MacKemp, Art by Rod Vass, Sounds by Kristan Nordine
  • Sonic the Hedgehog Colouring Activity Book, published by Ladybird
  • Sonic the Hedgehog Joke Book, published by Ladybird
  • Summer of Sonic 2009 Art Book, a free publication exclusively made for Summer of Sonic.
  • Sonic the Hedgehog Sticker Collection, published by Factory Entertainment.

[Source: Sonic Retro]

Theme Songs*

  • It Doesn't Matter (SA1)
  • It Doesn't Matter (SA2)
  • We Can
  • His World
  • High Flying Groove
  • Un-gravitify
  • Endless Possibility
  • Knight of the Wind
  • Reach For The Stars
  • Free

Voice Actors*

  • Keiko Utoku (Sonic the Hedgehog CD)
  • Takeshi Kusao (SegaSonic the Hedgehog)
  • Jaleel White (Adventures of Sonic the Hedgehog, Sonic the Hedgehog, Sonic Underground)
  • Samuel Vincent (Sonic Underground Singing voice)
  • Masami Kikuchi (Sonic the Hedgehog (anime) – Japanese)
  • Martin Burke (Sonic the Hedgehog (anime) – English)
  • Junichi Kanemaru (Japanese game voice (1998-Present) plus Sonic X)
  • Ryan Drummond (English game voice (1999-2004))
  • Jason Griffith (English game voice (2005-2010) plus Sonic X)
  • Tomokazu Seki (Sonic Unleashed; Werehog only)
  • Roger Craig Smith (English game voice (2010-present))

*Showing Sonic's Character Voices

Sonic the Hedgehog (game series) characters
Heroes Sonic (Super, Hyper, Darkspine, the Werehog, Excalibur) | Tails (Super) | Knuckles (Super, Hyper) | Amy Rose | Cream | Blaze (Burning) | G.U.N. (Commander) | Emerl | Silver (Super) | Marine | Shade | Lumina Flowlight | Chip | Shahra | Knights of the Round Table | Caliburn | Yacker
Anti-heroes/ Neutrals Shadow (Super) | Rouge | Espio | Charmy | Vector | Mighty | Ray | E-102 Gamma | Chaos (Perfect) | E-123 Omega | Bean | Bark | Jet | Wave |Storm | Merlina | Illumina
Villains Dr. Eggman | Metal Sonic | Mecha Sonic (Super) | Metal Knuckles | Tails Doll | E-Series | Fang | Gemerl | Eggman Nega | Battle Kukku Army | Biolizard | Black Doom | Ix (Super) | Void | Iblis | Mephiles | Solaris | Dark Gaia | Witchcart | Erazor | King Arthur | Orbot | Cubot
Teams Sonic/Heroes | Rose | Dark | Chaotix | Babylon
Other Gerald & Maria Robotnik | Big | Chao | Tikal | E-101 Beta | Heavy and Bomb | Flicky | Animals

Sonic the Hedgehog (Alternate Media) characters
Heroes Sonic (Super, Dark Super, the Werehog) | Tails (Super, Turbo) | Knuckles (Super, Hyper) | Amy Rose | Cream | Blaze | G.U.N. (Commander) | Emerl | Silver (Super) | Marine | Shade | Sally | Bunnie | Antione | Rotor | Sonia | Manic | Shahra | Knights of the Round Table | Caliburn | Yacker | Cosmo
Anti-heroes/ Neutrals Shadow (Super) | Rouge | Espio | Charmy | Vector | Mighty | Ray | Julie-su | E-102 Gamma | Chaos (Perfect) | E-123 Omega | Jet | Wave | Storm | Merlina | Aleena
Villains Dr. Eggman | Metal Sonic | Snively | Dark Oak | E-Series | Fang | Bean | Bark | Eggman Nega | Battle Kukku Army | Metarex | Black Doom | Erazor
Teams Sonic/Heroes | Rose | Dark | Chaotix | Babylon
Others Gerald & Maria Robotnik | Chris | Chao | Tikal | Big | E-101 Beta | Heavy and Bomb | Flicky | Animals | Galaxina | Earthia





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